Since computer terminology can often be one of the biggest stumbling blocks to understanding the world of personal computers,I've tried to make things a bit easier by defining new terms at the beginning of the chapter in they first appear

Saturday, 28 January 2012


Thanks to Madison Avenue, Hollywood, and a horde of science fiction writers, some people have come to believe that computers have minds of their own and are capable of thinking for themselves. While there is some interest and developmental research in the field of artificial intelligence (the so-called fifth generation of computers, which would be able to learn from experience and improve their own performance on any given task), computers. We know them today are basically stupid.
This is an important point to remember, particularly when dealing with someone who has a fear of computers. Essentially, a computer can be thought of as a very fast, very large calculator that can manipulate or process a lot of information, under its own control. It will execute any command it is given with precision and speed, but won’t go beyond that point. In short, it will do exactly what it is told, and no more. It has no way of telling 4vliether the information it is working on is good or bad, unless it receives further instructions and is given some basis for comparison. The intelligence and control belong entirely to the person who is working with it. Turn it off and its memory can be wiped clean. It is important to think about computers as one of many tools (such as telephone, calculators, and electric typewriters and pencil sharpeners) that people have at their disposal to help make life a little easier. Like a calculator, a computer can add and subtract quickly and with a high degree of accuracy. When a person uses a calculator, however, a button has to be pushed for each function to be performed. A computer has the capacity to store a series of instructions that, in effect, tell it what buttons to push, and in what order to push them. Most of what computers can do is based on their ability to:
Add two numbers together
Subtract one number from another
Compare numbers or symbols to see if they are the same
The power computers possess comes from their ability to perform multiple functions simultaneously and process tremendous amounts of information in what amounts to the blink of an eye. They are at their best when used for large volume, highly defined tasks.
In order to function effectively; a computer requires:
An input device, so that information can be given to it Information (or data)
A program to tell it what to do, or how to work, with that data An output device so that it can display or print out whatever is requested of it
These computer concepts can be found at work in any number of things with which most of us have daily contact. For example:
Scanners such as that pictured in Figure 11, used in the checkout stands at the supermarket (including some that have voice synthesizers)

FIGURE 11. Computerized scanner at a grocery store. Photo by author.
Cash registers at fast-food and other restaurants that not only keep track of cash and sales but that also tie into inventory control and reordering. Automatic tellers programmed to transfer money from your account on demand, or perform other services (see Figure 12) Household appliances, such as microwave ovens and televisions. Automatic gasoline pumps (pictured in Figure 13), that record a purchase, turn on the pump and keep track of how many total gallons a station is using Automobile systems that calculate miles per gallon, trip times, and distance. Computers are able to do all these things because they make no distinction between numbers and symbols. Rather, they translate everything into electrical impulses, which form patterns that have meaning for the computer. These patterns form the basis of the computer’s numbering system by taking the electrical pulses and converting them to a binary system. Binary consists of exactly two numbers: 1 (a pulse of electricity) and 0 (no pulse). By stringing is and Os together, the computer converts whatever data it is given into terms it can understand. For example, the binary equivalent of the number 10 is 1010. Binary codes are also assigned to the characters on the keyboard, so that letters, symbols, and spaces are treated the same way numbers are. This is accomplished through an international conversion code called the American Standard Code for International Interchange (ASCU). Under this code for example, the letter “B” on a keyboard is given the numeric value 66, which the computer can convert to its binary equivalent of 01000010. When the computer is finished processing the information it is given, it translates everything back into numbers and symbols that we understand. For most of us, there is no reason to ever use binary in communicating with a computer because this is already on the software. The decoding instruction the computer needs to interpret everything is programmed into it by the manufacturer.

FIGURE 12. Computers help make breaking more convenient  through the automated tellers.

FIGURE 13. Computerized gas pumps calculate sales customer’s account. 

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Hello guys we are working very hard to help you to know computer basic and we are providing you the techniques which help you to know computer components to a high extend

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