Since computer terminology can often be one of the biggest stumbling blocks to understanding the world of personal computers,I've tried to make things a bit easier by defining new terms at the beginning of the chapter in they first appear

Tuesday, 14 February 2012


              There is no better place to begin, than the beginning
This chapter is designed to accomplish two things:
1. Provide a basic understanding of how to work with a personal computer.
2. Serve .is guidelines for materials to include in personal computer training programs.
The information in this chapter assumes no prior knowledge of or experience with a personal computer. Anyone who has a comfortable working relationship with a personal computer may wish to skim over this section to get ideas of how to structure an introductory training course. For others starting from scratch, however, the chapter will focus on building a working knowledge of:
The keyboard
The operating system
Working with diskettes
Security and backups
As noted earlier, the two most common types of personal computers that will be encountered in most organizations are machines containing two diskette drives, and those with one diskette drive and a hard disk.
Diskette drives refer to the number of slots on the microprocessor for inserting diskettes. Two-drive systems have one slot for the program diskette and one for working on and storing the results (see Figure 30).
Since hard disks offer the storage equivalent of 30 diskettes, they require only one diskette drive for entering information (see Figure 31), although they may be configured with two drives for more sophisticated applications. In either case, the loading process is the same. The diskette drive(s) has an opening through which diskettes are inserted into the computer. Each opening has a device similar to a door that can be opened and closed using what is called a lift load lever. Once a diskette is inserted, the door is closed behind it by pushing the load lever down. While the system reads your program, a small red light on the front of your disk drive will come on. Do not open the drive door while this light is on. Doing so may permanently damage the program, and under some circumstances the system unit itself.

FIGURE 31. Proper way of loading a diskette. Courtesy of International Business Machines.
To make things more comfortable, it is possible to make minor adjustments to the height of the keyboard and the brightness and contrast of the display monitor. If the display monitor is near a source of bright light, such as a window, or has a high degree of glare, an anti glare screen might be appropriate.
Depending on the model, most keyboards have two to three possible positions. These range from, flat to a five-degree to 15 degree angle. To adjust the height, pick up the keyboard and, make the  necessary adjustment using the knobs at each end.
Brightness and contrast can be adjusted using the control knobs generally found on the front of the monitor. On systems that share multiple users, this will probably have to be done every time a person sits down to work. Everything a computer does is governed by operating sys tern, which is a software program that manages many of the computer’s basic functions. It acts as an intermediary between hardware and software and performs such tasks as controlling the input output devices, assigning spaces in memory to programs and data, and controlling how the system processes information. -
For IBM and IBM-compatible machines the operating system is called DOS (Disk Operating System), MS-DOS, or PC-DOS. They all perform the same basic functions.
The operating system must be present whenever a system is on in order for anything to be accomplished. In addition, it must be copied to all software before that software can be installed or used. Most software is generic in nature and written to be run on more than one brand of machine. Copying the operating system onto a software program allows it to become compatible with a particular system. Instructions accompany most software programs.
Booting is the process of actually loading DOS into a system. Booting clears the memory, loads the operating system, and gets the computer ready to process its work. If this is done when a machine is first turned on, it is called a cold boot. If the operating system is loaded after a system is already up and running, it is called a warm boot.
To perform a cold boot, simply put a copy of DOS or its equivalent in Drive A, and turn the computer on. The on—off switch that controls the system unit or microprocessor is located at the rear of the unit. On IBM machines, the switch will always be on the right-hand side (see Figure 32).
This is the recommended way to activate an entire system:
First, turn on the printer
Second, turn on the monitor
Third, turn on the CPU
Follow this sequence because one of the first things a system unit does is to check what is connected to it, and whether or not they are working properly. Turning the system on as described
FIGURE 32. Locations of on/off switch on IBM system unit. Courtesy of International Business Machines.
is the most effective way to accomplish this. If a unit is connected to multisocket electrical power strip or surge suppressors check to see that it is turned on as well. Many people control the power to all their system components through such devices, using them to turn everything on simultaneously.
When the power is switched on, the first sound heard will be the motor humming as the computer checks to see how much memory it has  take from 3 to 90 seconds, depending on how much memory has been installed. Memory will be counted in units   which can be seen blinking by at the top left—hand corner of a monitor.
When the memory check is completed, the computer will emit a short beep, and then display the following message:
Current date is 01-01-1980
Enter new date:
At this point, a person may simply hit the “enter” key, or may provide the current date. If he or she is working with file materials, or materials that may require future reference, a date should be entered. To enter a date, the computer must be given the month, 1-12, day, 1-31, and year, 80-99. A correct entry might be: 10-14-1986.
The operating system will then ask for the time. Again, the choice is to simply hit “enter,” or supply the current time. Since a 24-hour clock is used, any time past noon should carry one of the following values:
1:00 = 1300 hr
2:00 = 1400 hr
7:00 = 1900 hr
8:00 = 2000 hr
3:00 = 1500 hr 9:00 = 2100 hr
4:00 1600 hr
5:00 1700 hr
6:00 = 1800 hr
10:00 = 2200 hr
11:00 = 2300 hr
12:00 = 2400 hr

The time is expressed in hours: minutes: seconds: and hundredths. Colons (:) must be used between• hours, minutes, and seconds. Any value that is omitted will be assumed to be a zero. For example, if it is 2:30 in the afternoon, you would enter 14:30 hrs. And the system would record 14:30:00.
To perform a warm boot, the system must be restarted by using the “Cntrl,”“Alt,” and “Del” keys simultaneously. The operating system disk should be in drive A, unless the system has a hard disk on which it has already been installed. As in a cold boot, the operating system will again ask to have the date and time entered.

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  1. postingan yang bagus tentang SOME BASIC ESSENTIALS FOR COMPUTERS

  2. Well its a perfect article about computer and almost important details are added in your article. Really a worthy and useful article for the students who don't have the basic idea about the computers. hope this article will help us to clear all of the computer history doubts.

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Hello guys we are working very hard to help you to know computer basic and we are providing you the techniques which help you to know computer components to a high extend

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